The common terms used in masonry works are listed below
It is a full brick or stone which is laid with its length perpendicular to the face of the wall.
It is a full brick or stone in which is laid its length parallel to the face of the wall.
It is a term applied to the overlapping of bricks or stones in a wall in alternate courses, to bind the whole wall together.
A horizontal layer of bricks or stones is termed as course.
5. Header Course:
It is a course of brickwork entirely composed of headers.
6. Stretcher Course:
It is a course of brickwork in which all the bricks are laid as stretchers.
It is a term used to indicate the lower surface of bricks or stones in each course. It may also be termed as surface of the bricks on which it rests.
The surface of a wall exposed to weather is termed as face.
The material used in the face of the wall is known as facing.
The inner surface of the wall which is not exposed to the weather is termed as back.
The material used in forming the back of the wall is known as backing.
The portion of a wall between facing and backing is termed as hearting.
The junction of two or more bricks or stones is called joint.
14. Racking Back:
The process of stopping the unfinished end of a wall in stepped fashion.
It is a portion of a brick cut across the width or a brick cut by some fraction of its length.
It is a portion of a brick cut in such a manner that its one long face remains uncut.
17. King Closer:
It is a brick which is cut in such a way that the width of one of its end is half that of a full brick.
18. Queen Closer:
It is a term applied to a brick which is half as wide as full brick. Queen closer is made by cutting a brick lengthwise into two portions.
19. Bevelled Closer:
It is similar to king closer with the only difference that the whole length of the brick is bevelled for maintaining half width at one end and full width at the other.
20. Mitred Closer:
It is a brick whose one end is cut splayed or mitred for the full width.
It is a vertical joint on the face of a wall directly over vertical joints in an alternate course.
It is a depression on the top face of a brick. Frog provides a recess for the mortar which on setting forms a key and prevents the displacement of the brick above.
The horizontal projecting or flush course of stone or brick provided at the base of the wall above ground level is known as plinth.
It is a horizontal member of brick, stone, concrete or wood provided to give support for the vertical members of a window.
The vertical sides of a finished opening for door, window or fire place etc. are termed as jambs.
Reveals are the exposed vertical surfaces left on the sides of an opening after the door or window frame has been fitted in position.
A horizontal member of stone, brick, steel or RCC, used to support the masonry or load above an opening.
A mechanical arrangement of wedge-shaped blocks of stone or brick arranged in the form of a curve supporting the masonry or load above an opening.
It is a horizontal moulded projection provided near the top of a building or at the junction of a wall and ceiling.
It is a term applied to a low wall built around a flat roof to act as a protective solid balustrade for the users of the terrace.
Weathering is the term applied to the bevelled top surface of a stone.
It is a triangular shaped portion of masonry at the end of a sloped roof.
Chips or small pieces of stone broken off a large block are termed as spalls.
It is an isolated vertical load bearing member whose width does not exceed four times its thickness.
It is a vertical member of stone or brick masonry constructed to support an arch, beam or lintel etc.
It is similar to pier built on the exterior of a wall properly bonded to it.
It is the extension of one or more course of brick or stone from the face of a wall.
The arrangement of steps provided from ground level to reach plinth level on external doors and verandah is termed as thresholds.