Pile foundations are generally adopted in the following situations:
1. The sub-soil water table is very high which can easily affect other foundations.
2. Heavy and uniform load is coming to the soil from the structure.
3. Where raft or grillage foundations are either very costly or cannot be adopted due to local difficulties.
4. When timbering of the excavation trenches is not possible.
5. When it is impossible to maintain the foundation trenches in dry condition by pumping due to heavy inflow of seepage or capillary water.
6. When the underneath soil is waterlogged and compressive. Hard firm strata are situated at a deeper depth.
7. When the structure is situated on or near sea-shore or river bed and foundations are liable to be scoured due to the action of water.
8. Pile foundations can be used in the construction of piers, docks, or other marine structures as fender piles.
10. Pile foundation can also be used as anchors.