Parts Of A Toilet | Components Of A Toilet

Toilet is one of the most important utilities in your home. Toilets serve basic human and everyday needs, and they do so with elegant simplicity. All of the components of a toilet work together to provide a smooth flush and a cleaner, more sanitary bathroom.

When your toilet is in good operating condition, you usually don’t give it much thought. If you have a problem with your toilet, it’s best to understand how it works as much as possible.

Understanding the parts of a toilet is essential for diagnosing and repairing common toilet problems, including clogs, persistent running toilets, or leaks around the tank or bowl. This guide goes over the components of a toilet tank and toilet bowl.

Parts Of A Toilet

A. Toilet Tank

The toilet tank is the portion that sits on top of the toilet bowl and holds the water used for flushing. It houses all toilet flushing components and is surrounded by a heavy cover.

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A toilet tank is made up of the following components:

1. Toilet tank cover

It is the lid of the toilet tank.

2. Handle

This is located outside the tank and is used for flushing the toilet. The handle has an inside arm that links to the lift chain.

3. Trip lever

The trip lever is a small metal or plastic bar held within the tank. It is usually installed right behind the toilet handle and will lift whenever someone pushes the handle.

4. Chain

The chain or lift chain is one of the many fixtures in the toilet that plays an important role in the flushing process. The chain connects the trip lever to the flapper. When you press the toilet handle, the chain pulls upwards, and the flapper lifts.

5. Flapper Valve

The flapper valve is a water-tight rubber stopper placed on the inside base of the toilet tank. It regulates the amount of water that flows from the tank to the bowl during the flush cycle. 

The flapper is controlled by the toilet chain. The valve lifts when the chain is pulled, allowing water to flow through. After releasing the water, the flapper returns to its original position and closes the opening at the base of the tank.

6. Float

A toilet float is a spherical plastic or aluminum ball that floats on top of the water in the toilet tank. The toilet float manages the water level in the toilet tank. As water refills the tank, the toilet float rises.

When the water reaches the fill line of the tank, the float arm rises high enough to close the fill valve and stop the water supply to the tank. 

7. Refill Tube

The refill tube is a flexible plastic tube in the center of the toilet tank that trickles water into the toilet bowl. The refill tube fills the tank with freshwater when the float ball falls to a certain level.

A small amount of standing water must be present at the bottom of the toilet bowl as a trap that seals the bathroom against sewer gasses.

8. Overflow Tube

The overflow tube is a small pipe connected to the back of the tank and linked to the flush valve. This prevents excess water from overflowing into the tank and spilling onto the bathroom floor. If the tank becomes full, the excess water drains into this tube.

9. Flush Valve

The flush valve is placed in the center of the tank and is connected to the overflow tube. It stimulates the toilet to flush waste from the bowl. This part allows water to flow into the tank during the flushing process.

10. Fill Valve

The fill valve is connected to the float and flush valve, which activates the mechanism that lets water come inside the toilet tank. This part of the toilet refills the tank after each flush.

B. Toilet Bowl

The large portion on which the user sits is called the toilet bowl. It is the lowest section of the toilet that holds liquid and solid waste before flushing.

Toilet bowls are commonly available in round and elongated (oval) shapes. Round bowls are generally smaller and less expensive than elongated bowls and fit well in small spaces. Elongated bowls are slightly longer than round bowls and offer additional comfort. 

A toilet bowl is made up of the following components:

1. Lid

The lid keeps the toilet bowl clean and covered and serves as a safety barrier. The lid shields the contents of your toilet from the surrounding walls, towels, and shower doors.

When you flush, the quick movement of the water forms a plume, which spreads the used water in all directions. Closing the lid before flushing can prevent water droplets and germs from spreading into the air. 

2. Seat

This is a unit that allows the user to sit on the toilet comfortably. The seat is typically attached to the bowl by screws and a simple hinge mechanism.

3. Rim

The rim is the uppermost part around the toilet bowl. It connects the tank to the bowl. It helps to avoid splashing and overflowing. 

4. Rim Holes

Toilet rim holes (also called rim jets or siphon holes) are tiny holes under your toilet bowl’s rim. Water siphons down from the toilet tank via the rim holes when you flush.

This creates a swirling movement that enhances the flushing power of your toilet. The rim holes also help clean your toilet after every use.

5. Wax Ring

The wax ring attaches the base of the toilet bowl to the flange. It’s what on which your toilet sits. It has a “donut” shape and is roughly 1 inch thick. When the toilet is placed on the wax ring, the wax expands and creates a tight seal.

It helps to prevent water from leaking out of the toilet. Wax rings are also known as toilet bowl gaskets, toilet seals, or wax seals.

6. P-trap Pipe

The P-trap is a U-shaped pipe inside the bowl that holds a small amount of water and prevents smelly gas from rising up to the toilet. It acts as a barrier between the main sewage line and the toilet.

7. Toilet Flange

A toilet flange is a round plastic or metal bracket installed above the drain pipe that protrudes from the floor and below the toilet bowl. This fitting seals the toilet to the floor and connects it to the drain pipe.

The toilet flange or closet flange is strongly connected to the floor by bolts or screws, and the toilet is attached to it with T-bolts.

8. The drain pipe

After passing through the P-trap, the sewage and wastewater go through the drain pipe and reach the sewage system.

C. Toilet Plumbing Parts

1. Water Supply Line

Water flows to the toilet tank through the water supply line. A flexible metal tube is usually screwed into the bottom of the toilet tank’s fill valve.

2. Shut off Valve

It is also known as Stop Valve and is used to turn off the water during an emergency or repair. 


If you understand the toilet parts and their operations, you will be more confident in maintaining, repairing, or even installing a new one yourself. In this way, you might also save time and money by not employing plumbers.

Also Read

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How To Clean Bathroom & Shower Drain

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