Types Of Building Plans Used In Construction

Building plan is the most important thing we need to start any building construction project. It gives a clear idea of how the building will look after the completion of construction. Building plans are also useful in estimating building materials, project costs, and budgets. In this article, we will discuss different types of building plans used in construction.

What Is Building Plan?

A building plan is simply a graphical representation of a building and its different elements. It contains different types of plans of a building such as site plan, floor plan, structural plan, cross-sections, elevations, electrical detailing, plumbing, and landscape drawings.

The construction is done followed by such plans and drawings. Building plan is sometimes also referred as building drawing, architectural plan, or architectural drawing.

Types Of Building Plans

The different types of building plans are as follows:


  1. Site Plan
  2. Floor Plan
  3. Structural Plan
  4. Terrace Plan
  5. Cross-section
  6. Elevation
  7. Landscape plan

1. Site Plan

Site plan is the first design made for any project that represents the whole plan of the construction site. Site plans contain details of property boundaries, access to the site, and existing structures on or near the construction project, such as roads and buildings.

The site plan also shows all the service connections such as water supply, drainage, and sewer lines, electrical lines, communication cables, etc. Site plan must comply with the existing bye-laws and local development codes.

2. Floor Plan

Floor plan is one of the most interesting types of building plans. It is the top view of a floor layout. Floor plans are a form of vertical orthographic projection which is represented by a plan cut at sill level of windows on that floor.

Buildings with multiple levels generally have different floor plans for each level. Floor plans include specifications such as

  • Dimensions of rooms (room sizes),
  • Dimensions of interior and exterior walls,
  • Dimensions of doors, windows,
  • Positions of furniture,
  • Stairs and their direction.

Floor plans are typically two types

  • 2d floor plan
  • 3d floor plans

2D floor plan is a flat representation of the floor layout that shows measurements of rooms, walls doors, windows, stairs, etc.

3D floor plan shows the actual look of the entire building with furniture from above. It gives you a chance to see your fully furnished and decorated building before its completion.

3. Structural Plan

This type of plan provides a complete view of structural aspect of the building. The structural plan contains location, nomenclature, size and placement of reinforcement, details of structural elements, and load-carrying members of the building. Structural plan is very important because it focuses on the strength of the structure.

4. Terrace Plan

The terrace plan is the plan at the roof level of the building. It shows stair cabin, lift cabin (if any) overhead water tanks, etc along with roof drainage pattern. The terrace plan also shows the parapet walls.

5. Cross-section

Section plan is a vertical cut section through the building showing the details of dimension, thickness of any component of a building. In simple, it shows the view of a structure in sliced form. Section plan includes

  • Floor height,
  • Sill height,
  • Lintel height,
  • Beams
  • Columns etc.

The section plan is represented in the 2d floor plan by a bold dotted straight line.

6. Elevation

Elevation plan drawing is an orthographic projection that shows one side face of the building. It is a 2d drawing of the building’s facade. The main purpose of elevation drawing is to show the finished look of a particular side of the building.

Elevation plans are two types:

  • External Elevation
  • Internal Elevation

i) External Elevation

The external elevation shows the exterior of the building. It provides the details of type of finish, floor height, and projections. Exterior elevation can be represented in 2D or 3D drawings.

2d drawings typically provide measurements whereas 3D renderings show an exact look of your building when completed.

ii) Internal Elevation

Internal elevations provide a pre-visualization of the building’s interior. It shows the interior of different rooms along with the details of paint color, furniture designs, lighting types, and floor patterns. Internal elevations are mostly represented in 3D form.

7. Landscape Drawings

A perfect home or building is always incomplete without proper landscaping. If you want a small garden in your backyard, or want to add foliage and walkways in your complex. Then you should consider hiring a landscape planner. A landscape professional will surely help you beautification your outdoor.

Landscape plan provides all the details of flowers, plants, sidewalks, lawn decorations, fountains swimming pools (if any), etc. A proper landscape design can enhance the living area and increase your property value. This is why landscape plan has become one of the top trending types of building plans in today’s world.

Also Read –

Types Of Building – Detailed Classification

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