What Is Window?
A window is defined as a vented barrier secured in a wall opening. A window’s main function is to allow the entry of air and light into the building and give a view of the building’s outside. Other purposes of windows are to provide sufficient insulation against heat and cold, and in some cases, sound too. In this article, we will briefly discuss different types of windows used in homes and buildings.
A window is divided into two parts.
- Window frame
- Window shutters
Types Of Windows
Let us check different types of windows, based on materials used, the nature of the operational movement of shutters, the manner of fixing, and their locations.
Different types of windows used in homes and buildings are as follows:
- Fixed windows
- Pivoted windows
- Double hung windows
- Sliding windows
- Casement windows
- Sash windows/glazed windows
- Louvered windows
- Metal windows
- Bay windows
- Clerestorey windows
- Corner windows
- Dormer windows
- Cable windows
- Lantern windows
- Sky lights and
1. Fixed Windows
A fixed window is a type of window which cannot be opened. The only purpose of fixed windows is to admit light and provide a vision.
The shutters of these windows are fixed and fully glazed. Fixed windows are found in many shapes such as square, rectangle, round & oval.
The major drawback of the fixed window is that it does not allow air movement through it. So, fixed windows are used where ventilation is not required.
2. Pivoted Windows
In this type of window, the shutter is fixed with a pivot on two opposite sides. With the help of pivots, the movement of the shutter is possible, either horizontally or vertically.
The movement of such windows ranges from 90 degrees to 180 degrees. The frame of pivoted windows has no rebates present on it.
The pivoted allows the air to ventilate through it, as can swing from a fixed pivot on either side of the frame. The pivoted windows are mostly used for the purposes like cleaning, maintenance, and emergency ventilation.
3. Double Hung Windows
The double-hung window consists of a frame and pair of shutters which are arranged one above the other. Double-hung windows can only move vertically within the grooves provided in the window frame.
Both the shutters of the windows are movable so ventilation is possible from the top as well as the bottom part of the window.
It is easier to control ventilation in this type of window as it can be opened at the top and bottom to any desired extent. Cleaning the double-hung window is a lot easier. The double-hung windows are ideally seen in the patios and walkways as it remains flush with the wall.
4. Sliding Windows
Sliding windows are common these days. All modern houses are seen using sliding windows. Sliding windows are almost similar to sliding doors. The shutters of the sliding window move on small roller bearings.
They can move in either a horizontal direction or a vertical direction. Suitable-sized openings are left on the walls to accommodate the shutters of the window.
Sliding windows are usually seen in homes, offices, bank counters, trains, buses, shops, etc. The major disadvantage of the sliding window is that its bearings can be damaged due to the dust particles in its frame.
5. Casement Window
Casement windows are the most common types of windows used. A casement window is attached to the frame using one or more hinges at the side. Casement windows are used as a single shutter window or a pair of shutters within a common window frame.
The panels of casement windows may be glazed, non-glazed, or partially glazed. In the double shuttered casement windows, the outer shutters may sometimes have wired gauged panels for fly proofing.
6. Sash Windows Or Glazed Windows
It is a type of casement window in which the panels of the windows are fully glazed. Each shutter contains two vertical styles, a top rail, and a bottom rail.
The area between the top rail and bottom rail is divided into panels using small wooden strips. Placed horizontally and vertically, which are known as sash bars or glazing bars.
The glass panes are fixed in thin sash bars using timber beads. These beads are commonly known as glazed beads which are secured by the means of nails to the sash bars.
7. Louvered Windows
The louvered windows are similar to the louvered doors. These kinds of windows are provided for the only purpose of ventilation. Louvered windows do not provide any outside vision.
A strip like structure, known as louvers, is fixed in the shutter at an angle of 45 degrees. The louvers are sloped down towards the outside to run off the rainwater.
Sometimes Venetian shutters are provided in the window, in which the louvered can be opened or closed. These kinds of louvers are pivoted at both ends of the frame. They are connected to a batten.
When the batten is pulled up or down, the gap between the louvers is opened or closed. This is how it works. These kinds of shutters are made up of aluminum or wood.
8. Metal Windows
Metal windows are widely used nowadays because of their strength and affordability in terms of cost. The use of metal windows is increasing in private as well as public buildings.
Metal windows are generally made up of metals like mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, bronze, etc. Mild steel windows are mostly used because they are the cheapest of all.
Metal windows are stronger and more durable than wooden windows. They also provide an elegant appearance to the structure. The metal windows are rot-proof and termite-proof too. They are also highly fire-resistant.
Metal windows are easy to maintain and the cost of their maintenance is almost negligible. These are some of the reasons metal windows are more popularly used.
9. Bay Windows
A bay window is mainly used for aesthetical purposes in a structure. These types of windows projects outside the external wall of the room. This projection may be of various shapes like triangular, circular, rectangular, and polygonal.
A bay window is also provided to get an increased area of opening which allows more amount of light to enter.
10. Clerestorey Windows
A high section of wall containing the windows above eye level is defined as a clerestorey. The clerestorey windows are provided to admit light and fresh air. When the height of the ceiling is greater, these kinds of walls are provided.
It is necessary to provide a rain shed or a chhajja over the window to prevent the entry of rainwater inside the room, where the window is provided. Clerestorey windows can be seen in churches.
11. Corner Windows
Corner window is a special type of window which is generally provided in the corner of the room. A corner window has two faces, perpendicular to each other. For this type of window, a special lintel has to be cast.
12. Dormer Windows
A vertical window provided on the slope of the roof is known as a dormer window. It enhances the appearance of the building. The main objective of this type of window is to provide light and ventilation to the enclosed space below the roof.
13. Gable Windows
Gable window is provided on the side of the house, at the top side below the roof, to allow natural light into the room. It appears like a normal window installed on the side of the house.
14. Lantern Windows
Lantern windows are said to be a part of the roof. They are made up of glass panels on the top of the roof. The main function of the lantern window is to provide better lighting and air to the inner apartments of a building. The projection of lantern windows is above the roof level.
Skylight, a type of window that is provided on the slope of the roof as a part of the roof’s design. It allows natural light into the room. The opening made in the roof for the window is properly treated by lead flashing to make the roof, surrounding the opening, waterproof.
A ventilator is a small type of window provided 30 to 50 cm below the roof level. It has a frame and a shutter pivoted horizontally. Ventilators are generally glazed. Ventilators are mostly seen in bathrooms and toilets for ventilation and to eliminate foul odor.