In this article, we will briefly discuss step by step construction procedure of a house. The requirement of each project is different; therefore, we shall establish the general concepts of residential house construction that can be implemented in a more or less similar fashion.
Every project goes through five stages, i.e., initiation, planning, execution, monitoring-controlling, and closing. The construction project of a house also goes through the same five stages.
The five stages of a construction project are categorized under three heads, i.e., pre-construction, construction, and post-construction. The pre-construction stage involves conceptualization, designing, planning, contractor finalization, financing, etc.
The construction phase involves procurement of raw materials, work execution, quality checking, etc. The post-construction activities deal with the project closing and handing over for its use.
Construction Procedure Of House
1. Pre-Construction Stage
A project starts with an idea, a purpose, or a need. The owner sets expectations for the project. The house location, the number of rooms, parking space, open area, carpet area, floors, etc., are underlined. The owner also sets an initial budget and the financing source.
ii) Drawings And Specification
After the initial estimates and scope finalization, the preliminary design is considered. The house layout is finalized, followed by a detailed design with structural and architectural requirements.
The designs and drawings are prepared for architecture, structural, MEP, and finishing. The specifications for material quality are detailed along with the design.
The project scope and material specifications rely heavily on the project budget. The construction methodology is also finalized.
The changes are inevitable in the project; however, give due care in the planning phase to clarify and freeze as many points as possible.
The house layout needs approval from the district authorities like a municipal corporation, fire department, etc. The statutory requirements fulfillment takes time and, therefore a prime reason for the delay in projects.
For a residential project, the state and local government enlists the statutory requirement. Some approvals are layout approval, water, and electric connections, sewerage connection, Rainwater harvesting, etc.
iv) Teams & Workforce
The construction of a house needs a team of skilled and unskilled labors, supervisors, engineers, and construction equipment. Float the tender for the work. The contractors submit their quotes for the construction work.
Check the contractor’s records for quality, cost, and timely completion of previous projects. Award the contract to the consistently performing contractor (it might not be the L1 bidder).
v) Preliminary Survey
After finalizing the contractor, conduct a site visit with the contractor and consultant. Check for potential obstructions and hazards. The site visit helps avoid delay and over-budgeting. The site visit may include:
- The plot and boundary measurement.
- Entry-exit points.
- Construction material storage.
- Marking off all the existing amenities like electric lines.
- Water lines.
- Sewerage lines.
- Leveling requirements.
2. Construction Stage
a. Sub Structure Work
Mark the layout on the plot and establish at least one benchmark for level and measurement. Excavate the foundations as per the excavation drawing.
The excavation drawing marks only the PCC area for the foundation. However, excavate 1-1.5 m extra on all sides of the foundation to facilitate the working.
ii) PCC Work
PCC stands for Plain Cement Concrete of grade M7.5-M10. The PCC provides a leveled surface to the foundation work. It has a thickness of 75 mm – 100 mm.
The area of PCC is slightly larger than the foundation size. Provide an offset of 75-100 mm (equal to PCC thickness) on all sides of the foundation.
iii) Footing Work
Footing reinforcement work starts the next day after PCC, followed by shuttering work and concreting. Since a footing is the base of the whole structure, take extra care in work quality.
iv) Backfilling Work
After footing casting, remove the shuttering and cure the footing. The pits excavated for the foundation are filled with soil and compacted by a suitable method. Compact the soil till it achieves 95% compaction (of MDD).
v) Plinth Work
A plinth level is a floor finished level. The structure below the plinth level is filled with soil and called sub-structure. The superstructure is the structure above the plinth.
The plinth level is designed to be a minimum of 300 mm higher than the natural ground level. A plinth beam connects the columns at the plinth level. It acts as a benchmark for further construction activities.
A structure prone to water seepage has poor hygiene and lower aesthetics. One of the prime sources of water seepage is ground. Hence, waterproofing at the plinth level is an essential activity. Standard waterproofing chemicals and expert supervision are advisable for waterproofing work.
b. Super Structure Work
Ground floor column work starts after completing the substructure work. With plyboard shuttering, columns take 2-3 lifts up to the 1st-floor beam bottom—the total height of a single lift for plyboard shuttering is 2400 mm.
ii) Ground Floor Slab
The beam centering and reinforcement work start as early as 24 hours after the completion of column casting. After the reinforcement of beams, slab centering starts, followed by slab reinforcement. Plan the casting day and check the weather for that day.
iii) First-floor Work
After completion of the 1st-floor slab, the structural work for the floors above is mostly repetitive. Take care of the shuttering material quality before repetition.
3. Post-Construction Stage
a. Finishing Works
The walls are of two types-internal and external. The external walls protect the house from intrusion and weather, while the internal walls divide the house into rooms.
The thickness for the exterior brick wall of the ground floor is 230 mm, and 115 mm for the interior brick wall. A wall can be made of red-clay brick, fly ash brick, concrete block, etc.
The wall openings for doors and windows are left as per the drawings. It is convenient to install the door and window frames with the wall work.
ii) Plaster Work
Plaster is a layer of mortar that provides a smooth finish to the brickwork. The plaster thickness depends upon the roughness of the wall. A single coat of plaster is sufficient for the internal walls and two coats for the external walls of the building.
iii) MEP Work
Electricity and water are the basic need to live in a house. The electrical and plumbing fittings start after the plasterwork. W/C and kitchen floor waterproofing is advisable to prevent water seepage and dampness.
iv) Tiling & Flooring
The flooring for a residential house has many methods depending upon the need and budget. Concrete flooring, stone flooring, wooden flooring, etc., are used. Ceramic tiles are set in the walls to improve the aesthetics of the house.
5) Gypsum / POP/Putty Finish Work
The interior beautification of slabs and walls uses gypsum or plaster of Paris. The thickness of gypsum/POP work varies from 12-25 mm.
6) Utilities & Other External Works
The connection of interior fittings for plumbing, electrification, and sewage comes under the utilities. Some external works like the garden, porch, driveway, and pathway improve the house’s aesthetics from the outside. Boundary and gate work protects the outside intrusion.
7) Painting Work
Painting is generally the last activity in the house construction procedure. The distemper or putty applied to the plastered wall smoothens the plaster surface.
The distemper or putty makes the plaster surface ready for the paint. The painting takes 2-3 coats with the application of primer followed by the paint.
8) Terrace Work
The terrace is protected from water seepage by waterproofing. The brickbat Coba waterproofing technique is the oldest and is generally used in India.
Bitumen sheet and polymer-based waterproofing are other methods that are used for terrace waterproofing. China chip flooring is the popular flooring method used on the terrace.