What Are Construction Projects?
The organized effort to create a building or structure is known as a construction project. Construction projects in civil engineering and architecture refer to physically putting together infrastructure or a building.
A construction project comprises several smaller projects as it is not a single activity. Human multitasking is required for large-scale construction projects.
A design engineer, a construction engineer, or a professional architect oversees these types of larger construction projects. Effective planning is necessary for building projects to be completed cost-effectively.
To avoid work-related injuries or financial difficulties, a construction management team participating in the design and execution of infrastructure must incorporate different safety measures and examine the project’s entire cost.
All construction projects require meticulous planning because of the job’s invariable environmental and financial impact. As a result of these intrinsic characteristics, all construction projects require detailed planning centered on the following elements:
- Building material availability,
- Construction site safety, and
- The discomfort the project will cause to the general public.
Types Of Construction Projects
The type of construction project you work on is typically determined by the construction vocation you choose. When you work in construction, you may be exposed to commercial, residential, infrastructural, or industrial projects. Some of the types are:
1. Residential Building Project
Residential housing construction is the first type of construction, and it comprises building, maintaining, and modifying structures for housing people, supplies, or equipment.
All housing types are included, including apartments, townhomes, condos, nursing homes, and dorms. Residential structures include garages and outbuildings, such as utility sheds.
Residential housing projects are usually designed by engineers and architects, with the mechanical, structural, and electrical work completed by subcontractors hired by construction companies.
In the case of single-family homes, however, builders often handle all parts of the project, including design and construction.
2. Private Project
Construction projects owned, controlled, or commissioned by a private entity are known as private construction projects.
Individuals, homeowners, corporations, other corporate entities, non-profit associations, privately supported schools, hospitals, publicly-traded firms, and other private parties are examples of private projects.
These types of construction projects occur in numerous shapes and sizes, and it’s at this point, examining the nature of the work accomplished may help divide private construction into subcategories.
3. Commercial Project
Commercial projects include schools, sports arenas, commercial centers, hospitals, stadiums, retail outlets, and skyscrapers.
Institutional and commercial construction, like residential housing development, comprises the construction of new structures and the repair and maintenance of existing ones.
A company or a private owner usually commissions a project like a retail store. Other infrastructure projects, like stadiums, schools, and medical facilities, are frequently funded and controlled by local and national governments.
4. Industrial Project
The form of construction comprises constructing structures that require a high level of specialization and technical planning, construction, and design skills. This form of construction is usually done by for-profit or industrial businesses.
For example, a chemical company can build oil refineries, whereas a power generation company can build hydroelectric power plants and nuclear power plants, both are industrial structures.
5. State Construction Project
State-funded construction projects come in a range of shapes and sizes. It could be something as simple as constructing a public school or a government building (like a courtroom). These projects can also be quite complex, such as building a bridge, sewer line, motorways, etc.
6. Infrastructure and Heavy Construction Project
These types of construction projects include constructing and updating railways, communications, roads, and railways to the city’s environs and current building construction.
This form of development is typically carried out in the public interest by government institutions and significant commercial firms.
Tunnels, bridges, highways, transport systems, drainage systems, and pipelines are examples of other projects that fall under this category.
7. Federal Construction Project
State and federal construction projects are very similar. They can take several shapes, much like state projects, and are very simple, conventional, and complicated.
Here, the structures built are often identical to those constructed by state governments: courthouses, government buildings, flood control projects, etc. The only distinction between state and federal projects is who owns or controls the project’s underlying location.
The distinction is not in which organization funds the project as federal money is used in state and private initiatives. It is a state project if construction on a state courtroom is done with federal funds.
On the other hand, working in a federal courthouse is a government enterprise. Because states manage the highways, work on a federally funded interstate is usually a state project.
Types Of Construction Projects Classified By Fire Resistance
Fire-resistance rating, a safety measure used to determine a structure’s ability to withstand a fire, is widely used to classify buildings.
The National Fire Protection Association’s Building Construction and Safety Code contains these requirements (NFPA).
A fire-resistance rating can be given to individual materials or architectural elements and entire buildings based on the materials utilized.
The fire-resistance ratings apply to the exterior and interior bearing walls, columns, beams, girders, trusses, and arches, as well as the floor, ceiling, and roof assemblies.
1. Type I: Fire-retardant
All of the building components are non-combustible and can withstand a fire for 3-4 hours. High-rise structures, commercial ventures, and hospitals are all examples of this sort of construction.
2. Type II: Non-combustible
All building materials are non-combustible and provide a fire resistance of 1-2 hours. Mid-rise business buildings, hotels, and schools all use this type of architecture.
3. Type III: Ordinary
Ordinary construction provides a fire resistance of 0-2 hours. The exterior walls, such as brick, are made of non-combustible materials, whereas the inside structural parts may be flammable. This is commonly found in warehouses and certain private residences.
4. Type IV: Heavy Timber
Heavy timber construction necessitates non-combustible outside walls that provide 2 hours of fire resistance and an interior built of solid or laminated wood with no concealed spaces. This is a popular choice for churches, small businesses, and warehouses.
5. Type V: Wooden Framed
Wooden walls, floors, and roofs provide little to no fire resistance in wood-framed buildings. This is a popular choice in residential settings.
These are the most common types of construction projects in use today. Depending on your project’s scope, you can choose from a variety of building experts.
An architect or Civil engineer can help you with the design of your structure, while a builder can assist you with the construction. You have to ensure that the person or contractor is credible, trustworthy, and knowledgeable in his field.
You can also find a good professional for your project by using the internet and referrals from friends and relatives. Further, construction projects must adhere to the locality’s zoning and building code regulations.
If they do not follow, the project may be delayed or fined severely. Thus, construction projects are complicated webs of contracts and other legal duties requiring a team of lawyers or legal specialists to analyze each responsibility carefully.
Aside from the contractual legal responsibilities, the time aspect in building projects is critical as any delay in a construction project would result in additional expenditures.