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Road pattern is a particular style of development of road networks, connecting various places. Different types of road patterns are considered during the process of town planning. After selecting the suitable road pattern the development of the road network is started.

The main objective of road patterns is to make conveyance easy for the public and to interconnect the roads and various places in the city, town, or village.

Every city and country follows a specific pattern of the road network to connect the roads and the places around it. The selection of the road patterns for a specific city is done based on the layout of the city.

The main principle of the road pattern is to decrease the distance between two destinations and to reduce the time to reach from one place to another. Road patterns are responsible for the traffic management of a region.

Given below are different types of road patterns:

1. Rectangular or Block Pattern.
3. Hexagonal Pattern
4. Minimum travel Pattern

Let us learn about each of the given road patterns, in detail below:

1. Rectangular Or Block Pattern:

In a rectangular or block pattern, the whole area is divided into rectangular or block-shaped plots. The roads and streets in block patterns intersect at 90° (right angle). The roads in the Centre part of the grid are usually wider and their branch roads are relatively narrow in width.

The rectangular or block pattern of the road is normally considered as unsafe as the vehicles meet in the opposite direction at the intersections. The chances of accidents are higher in rectangular or block patterns.

The rectangular or block pattern gives a decent view when observed from a height. The geometry of the rectangular pattern is relatively easy to understand.

Advantages Of Rectangular Or Block Pattern:

• It is relatively easier to construct and maintain.
• The rectangular plots can be divided into smaller parts for the construction of buildings.
• It looks aesthetically pleasing.

Disadvantages Of Rectangular Or Block Pattern:

• From a safety point of view, these roads are not considered safe.

The radial pattern of the road network is the circular type of pattern.

Depending on its layout, the radial pattern is further divided into three types. They are as follows:

1. Radial or star and block pattern.
2. Radial or star and circular pattern.
3. Radial or star and grid pattern.

a. Radial Or Star And Block Pattern:

This type of road pattern is basically the combination of radial and block patterns. A network of roads radiates from the center in the outwards direction with a block pattern.

The space between the networks of roads can be utilized for the construction and development of the area, town, or city.

• It is safer compared to a rectangular pattern.
• Less obstacles.

• This type of road pattern is effective when two-lane ramp traffic does not have to merge at the downstream end of the ramp.

b. Radial Or Star and Circular Pattern:

It is a combination of radial and circular patterns. The main roads in this network spread out from a central point and are connected with concentric circular roads, radiating in outwards directions.

• This pattern is safer than the above-listed patterns as the vehicles travel in the same direction.
• Better traffic management due to the presence of roundabouts.

• Its design is complex and it is quite challenging to provide a good and required curve.
• Driving ability is affected due to its circular shape.

c. Radial Or Star And Grid Pattern:

It is a network of roads consisting of a combination of radial and grid patterns. A radial network of roads spreads out from the center to the outwards directions. Then the radial streets are connected using a grid pattern.

• Reduction of cut-through traffic.
• Efficient use of land.

3. Hexagonal Pattern

A hexagonal pattern is a network of roads that forms a hexagonal shape, similar to a circular road pattern. At every corner of the hexagon, three roads meet the built-up area. Boundary by the sides of hexagon is further divided into plots of suitable sizes.

• The distance and the travel time are reduced.
• Congestion of traffic is minimized.

• Traffic signs, lighting, and road markings should be properly and adequately provided. To minimize the risk of accidents.

4. Minimum Travel Pattern

A minimum travel pattern is also known as a linear pattern. In a linear pattern, the road network is spread out in a linear direction (one direction) due to the presence of some natural features such as the sea or ocean on one side of the city.